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TOEFL READING 1993/08

1

The first jazz musicians played in New Orleans during the early 1900's. After 1917, many of the New Orleans musicians moved to the south side of Chicago, where they continued to play their style of jazz. Soon Chicago was the new center for jazz.

Several outstanding musicians emerged as leading jazz artists in Chicago. DanielLouis "Satchmo" Armstrong, born in New Orleans in 1900, was one. Another leading musician was Joseph "King" Oliver, who is also credited with having discovered Armstrong when they were both in New Orleans. While in Chicago, Oliver asked Armstrong, who was in New Orleans, to join his band.

In 1923 King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band made the first important set of recordings by a Hot Five and Hot Seven bands under Louis Armstrong also made recordings of special note .

Although Chicago's South Side was the main jazz center, some musicians in New York were also demanding attention in jazz circles . In 1923 Fletcher Henderson already had a ten piece band that played jazz. During the early 1930's, the number of players grew to sixteen. Henderson's band was considered a leader in what some people have called the Big Band Era.

By the 1930's big dance bands were the rage . Large numbers of people went to ballrooms to dance to jazz music played by big bands.

One of the most popular and long a very famous jazz band was the Duke Ellington band. Edward "Duke" Ellington was born in Washington, D. C., in 1899 and died in New York City in 1974. He studied the piano as a young boy and later began writing original musical compositions .

The first of Ellington's European tours came in 1933. He soon received international fame for his talent as a band leader, composer, and arranger. Ten years later, Ellington began giving annual concerts at Carnegic Hall in New York City. People began to listen to jazz in the same way that they had always listened to classical music.

重点单词:
jazz : n. 爵士乐,喧闹;a. 爵士乐的,喧吵的;vi. 演奏爵士乐,跳爵士乐,游荡;vt. 奏爵士乐,使活泼
style : n. 风格,时尚,文体,风度,类型,字体;vt. 称呼,设计,使合潮流;n. 风格,样式
emerge : vi. 浮现,形成,(由某种状态)脱出,(事实)显现出来
be the rage : 时尚
ballroom : n. 舞厅,跳舞场
composition : n. 作文,著作,组织
fame : n. 名望,传说
annual : n. 年刊,年报;a. 一年一次的,年年的,一年生的

2

The modern age is an age of electricity. People are so used to electric lights, radio, televisions, and telephones that it is hard to imagine what life would be like without them. When there is a power failure , people grope about in flickering candlelight, cars hesitate in the streets because there are no traffic lights to guide them, and food spoils in silent refrigerators.

Yet, people began to understand how electricity works only a little more than two centuries ago. Nature has apparently been experimenting in this field for millions of years. Scientists are discovering more and more that the living won may hold many interesting secrets of electricity that could benefit humanity.

All living cells send out tiny pulses of electricity. As the heart beats, it set out pulses of recorded, they form an electrocardiogram , which a doctor can study to determine how well the heart is working. The brain, too, sends out brain waves of electricity, which can be recorded in an electroenephalogram. The electric currents generated by most living cells are extremely smalloften so small that sensitive instruments are needed to record them. But in some animals, certain muscle cells have become so specialized as electrical generators that they do not work as muscle cells at all. When large numbers of these cells are linked together, the effects can be astonishing.

The electric eel is an amazing storage battery It send a jolt of as much as eight hundred volts of electricity through the water in which it lives (An electric house current is only one hundred twenty volts.). As many as four-fifths of all the cells in the electric eel's body are specialized for generating electricity, and the strength of the shock it can deliver corresponds roughly to the length of its body.

重点单词:
imagine : vt. 想象,幻想,猜测;vi. 想象起来
grope : vi. vt. n. 摸索
flickering : a. 闪烁的,摇曳的,一闪一闪的
candlelight : n. 烛火,黄昏
hesitate : vi. 犹豫,迟疑,踌躇,支吾
spoil : n. 战利品,赃物,奖品,掠夺,次品;vt. 损坏,破坏,溺爱;vi. 腐坏,掠夺
silent : a. 沉默的,休止的,无声的,静止的
experiment : n. 实验,试验,尝试;vi. 实验,尝试
humanity : n. 人性,人类,博爱
pulse : n. 脉冲,脉搏,情绪,豆类,动向,拍子;vi. 跳动,脉跳;vt. 使跳动,用脉冲输送
beat : n. 打,敲打声,拍子;vt. vi. 打,打败,搜索;a. 疲乏的,颓废的
electrocardiogram : 心电图
determine : vt. vi. 决定,决心
electroenephalogram :脑电图
generate : vt. 产生,发生,导致
extremely : ad. 极端地,非常地,很
sensitive : a. 敏感的,易感的,灵敏的,感光的
muscle : n. 肌肉,臂力
astonishing : a. 可惊异的
eel : n. 鳗鱼,鳝鱼
jolt : n. 震摇,摇动,颠簸;vi. 颠簸而行,震摇;vt. 使颠簸,使慌张,猛击
specialize : vt. 使特殊化,列举,特别指明,限定...的范围;vi. 成为专家,专攻
shock : n. 震动,冲突,震惊,休克,突击,禾束堆,冲击,打击,乱蓬蓬的一堆;vt. 使震动,使休克,使受电击,震惊得;vi. 震动,吓人;a. 蓬乱的,浓密的
correspond : vi. 符合,通信,相当
roughly : ad. 概略地,粗糙地

3

The sooner had the first intrepid male aviators safely returned to Earth, it seemed that women, too, were smitten by an urge to fly. From mere spectators they became wilting passengers and finally pilots in their own right, ploting their skills and daring Line against the hazards of the air and the skepticism of their male counterparts . In doing so, they enlarged the traditional bounds of a women's world, won for their sex a new sense of competence and achievement, and contributed handsomely to the progress of aviation.

But recognition of their abilities did not come essily, "Men do not believe us capable." the famed aviator Amelia Earhart once remarked to a friend "Because we are women, seldom are we trusted to do an efficient job." Indeed old attitudes died hard :when Charles Lindbergh visited the Soviet Union in 1938 with his wife, Anne---herself a pilot and gifted proponent of aviation ---he was astonished to discover both men and women flying in the Soviet Air Force.

Such conventional wisdom made it difficult for women to raise money for the up-to-date equipment they needed to compete on equal basis with men. Yet compete they did, and often they triumphed handily despite the odds .

Ruth Law, whose 590-mile flight from Chicago to Hornell, New York, set a new nonstop distance record in 1916, exemplified the resourcefulness and grit demanded of any woman who wanted to fly. And when she addressed the Aero Club of America after completing her historic journey, her plainspoken words testified to a universal human motivation that was unaffected by gender:" My flight was done with no expectation of reward," she declared, "just purely for the love of accomplishment "

重点单词:
intrepid : a. 无畏的,勇猛的,豪勇的
aviator : n. 飞行员,飞行家
smite : vt. 重击,打,击败,毁灭,折磨,侵袭;vi. 重击,打;n. 重击,打
urge : n. 冲动,推动力,迫切的要求;vt. 驱策,力劝,力陈,推动;vi. 强烈要求
spectator : n. 观众,目击者,旁观者
wilt : vt. vi. (使)枯萎,(使)衰弱,(使)憔悴;n. 枯萎,衰弱,憔悴
pilot : n. 飞行员,领航员,航船者,向导,领导人;vt. 领航,驾驶,引导;a. 引导的,控制的,试点的
plot : n. 小块土地,地区图,图,阴谋,情节;vt. 划分,绘图,密谋;vi. 密谋,策划
daring : a. 大胆的
hazard : n. 冒险,危险,机会;vt. 冒...的危险,赌运气,使遭危险
skepticism : n. 怀疑论
counterpart : n. 副本,复本,配对物,相应物
bound : n. 跃,回跳,范围,边界;a. 受约束的,装订的,有义务的,准备去...的,被束缚的,关联的,便秘的;vi. 跳跃,弹起;vt. 使跳,限止,邻接
sense : n. 侦测,感应,感觉,观念,知觉,理智,感官,情理,意识;vt. 感觉,觉察,了解
competence : n. 胜任,资格,能力
achievement : n. 成就,完成,功业
contribute : vt. 有助于,捐助,投稿;vi. 出力,捐献,投稿
handsome : a. 英俊的,大方的,慷慨的,美观的,灵敏的
aviation : n. 航空,航空学,航空术
recognition : n. 赞誉,认得,承认,重视,认识,认可;识别
ability : n. 能力,才干
capable : a. 有能力的,能的,能干的
remark : n. 备注,评论,注意,注释;vt. 评论,注意,谈及;vi. 评论,谈论
trust : n. 信任,信赖,相信,信心,职责,委托;a. 信托的,被信托的;vt. 信赖,信任,相信,盼望,赊卖给;vi. 相信,信赖,希望
efficient : a. 有效率的,能干的
indeed : ad. 的确,实在,真正地,甚至
attitude : n. 态度,看法,姿势
soviet : n. 代表会议,劳工代表会议,苏维埃,苏联;a. 苏维埃的,苏联的
proponent : n. 建议者,支持者
conventional : a. 传统的,习惯的,约定的
wisdom : n. 智慧,明智的行为,学识,名言,贤人
up-to-date : a. 直到现在的,最近的,当代的
triumph : n. 凯旋,胜利,欢欣;vi. 得胜,成功
handily : ad. 巧妙地,敏捷地,便利地
despite the odds : 尽管有极大的困难
odds : n. 不平等,几率,机会,胜算
nonstop : a. 直达的,不着陆的,不休息的;ad. 不休息地;n. 直达车,直达行驶
exemplify : vt. 例证,例示
resourceful : a. 策略的,机智的,资源丰富的
grit : n. 砂砾,粗砂石;vt. 覆以砂砾,摩擦;vi. 摩擦作声
plainspoken : a. 老实说的,直言无隐的,率直的
testify : vt. vi. 证明,作证,声明,表明
expectation : n. 期待,指望,展望
declared : a. 公告的,公然的
purely : ad. 纯粹地,清洁地,贞洁地
accomplishment : n. 成就,完成

4

Insects' lives are very short and they have many enemies, but they must survive long enough to breed and perpetuate their kind. The less insect like they look, the better their chance of survival. To look "inedible" by resembling or imitating plants, deception widely practiced by insects. Mammals rarely use this type of camouflage but many fish and invertebrates do.

The stick caterpillar is well named. It is hardly distinguishable from a brown or green twig .This caterpillar is quite common and can be found almost anywhere in North America. It is also called "measuring worm" or "inchworm." It walks by arching its body, then stretching out and grasping the branch with its front feet, then looping its body again to bring the hind feet forward. When danger threatens, the stick caterpillar stretches its body away from the branch at an angle and remains rigid and still, like a twig, until the danger has passed.

Walkingsticks, or stick insects, do not have to assume a rigid, twiglike pose to find protection; they look like inedible twigs in any position. There are many kinds of walkingsticks, ranging in size from the few inches of the North American variety to some tropical species that may be over a foot long. When at rest their front legs are stretched out, heightening their camouflage. Some of the tropical species are adorned with spines or ridges , imitating the thorny bushes or trees in which they live.

Leaves also seem to be a favorite object for insects to imitate. Many butterflies can suddenly disappear from view by folding their wings and sitting quietly among the foliage that they resemble.

重点单词:
breed : n. 种类,品种;vt. vi. 养育,引起,饲养,繁殖
perpetuate : vt. 使永存,使不朽
inedible : a. 不适于食用的,不能吃的
resemble : vt. 相似,类似,象
imitate : vt. 模仿,效法,冒充,仿造
deception : n. 欺骗,诡计
camouflage : vt. 伪装,欺瞒;n. 伪装,隐瞒,幌子
invertebrate : a. 无脊骨的,无脊椎的,无骨气的;n. 无脊椎动物,无骨气的人
stick : n. 棍,棒,刺,茎,枯枝,条状物;vt. 插于,刺入,钉住,使停止,伸出,粘贴;vi. 粘住,停留,坚持,陷住,伸出
caterpillar : n. 毛虫
distinguishable : adj. 可区别的,可辨别的
brown : n. 褐色;a. 褐色的;vt. vi. (使)变褐色
twig : n. 小枝,末梢;vt. vi. 注意,了解
measure : n. 尺寸,量度器,量度标准,分寸,方法,测量,限度,标准,程度,范围,量具,措施;vt. 测量,测度,估量,分派,权衡,调节;vi. 量
inchworm : n. 尺蠖
arch : n. 拱门,弓形,脚弓;vt. 成弓形弯曲,;vi. 拱起,成弓形;a. 主要的,狡猾的
stretchy : a. 伸长的,有弹性的,容易伸长的
grasping : a. 抓的,握的,贪婪的
loop : n. 环,圈,弯曲部分;vt. 使成环,以圈结,以环连结;vi. 打环,翻筋斗;n. 循环
threaten : vt. 恐吓,威胁,预示...的凶兆;vi. 威胁,恫吓,可能来临
stretch : n. 伸展,张开,连绵,一段路,一段时间;a. 可伸缩的,弹性的;vt. 伸展,张开,曲解,使过度伸展;vi. 伸展,延伸
angle : n. 角,角落;vi. 钓鱼,夺取,追逐,转变角度;vt. 使转动角度
remain : vi. 保持,逗留,剩余
rigid : a. 硬的,坚硬的,刚性的,精密的,刻板的,严格的
walkingstick : 直翅目昆虫
assume : vt. 假定,承担,摆架子;vi. 专擅,装腔作势
pose : n. 姿势,姿态,装模作样,伪装;vi. 摆姿势,装模作样,假装;vt. 使摆好姿势,提出,形成,难住
protection : n. 保护,防卫,保护制度
variety : n. 多样,种类,变种,杂耍
tropical : a. 热带的,热情的
species : n. 种,类,外形
heighten : vt. 增高,提高,加强;vi. 变大
camouflage : vt. 伪装,欺瞒;n. 伪装,隐瞒,幌子
adorn : vt. 装饰,佩戴,使生色
spine : n. 背骨,脊柱,尖刺
ridge : n. 脊,山脊,山脉
thorny : a. 多刺的,痛苦的
bush : n. 矮树丛
leaves : n. pl. 树叶,花瓣
foliage : n. 树叶,植物
resemble : vt. 相似,类似,象

5

Anthropologists have pieced together the little they know about the history of left-handedness and right-handedness from indirect evidence. Though early men and women did not leave written records, they did leave tools, bones, and pictures. Stone Age hand axes and hatchets were made from stones that were carefully chipped away to form sharp cutting edges. In some, the pattern of chipping shows that these tools and weapons were made by right-handed people, designed to fit comfortably into a right hand. Other Stone Age implements were made by or for left-handers. Prehistoric pictures, painted on the walls of caves, provide further clues to the handedness of ancient people. A right-hander finds it easier to draw faces of people and animals facing toward the left, whereas a left-hander finds it easier to draw faces facing toward the right. Both kinds of faces have been found in ancient painting. On the whole , the evidence seems to indicate that prehistoric people were either ambidextrous or about equally likely to be left- or right-handed.

But, in the Bronze Age , the picture changed. The tools and weapons found from that period are mostly made for right-handed use. The predominance of right-handedness among humans today had apparently already been established.

重点单词:
anthropologist : n. 人类学家
piece : n. 块,片,篇,碎片,部分;vt. 修补,修理,结合;vi. 接头
left-handed : a. 左撇的,用左手的,笨拙的
right-handed : a. 用右手的,向右转的,右旋性的
indirect : a. 间接的,次要的,欺骗的
evidence : n. 证据,迹象
axes : n. 轴,轴线,轴心
hatchet : n. 斧头,手斧,战斧
chip : n. 芯片,晶片,薄片,碎片;vt. 削,切,削成碎片,使摔倒,凿;vi. 碎裂
pattern : n. 模范,典型,式样,模式,样品,格调,图案;vt. 模仿,仿造,以图案装饰;vi. 形成图案
weapon : n. 武器,兵器;vt. 武装
implement : n. 工具,器具;vt. 实现,使生效,执行
left-hander : n. 左撇子,左击,左手投球
prehistoric : adj. 史前的;老式的
ancient : a. 远古的,旧的
whereas : conj. 然而,反之,鉴于
ambidextrous : a. 两手俱利的,怀有二心的
bronze : n. 青铜,铜像;a. 青铜色的
predominance : n. 卓越,优势,控制
establish : vt. 建立,确立,制定;vi. 移植生长


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